ChemTrails ~Patent# US3899144:
Powder contrail generation
Powder contrail generation
Werle; Donald K. , Hillside, IL
Kasparas; Romas , Riverside, IL
Katz; Sidney , Chicago, IL
The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, DC
Date of Issue:
Aug. 12, 1975 / July 22, 1974
Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize inparticle cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material.
What claim is:
1. Contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximum radiation scattering ability for a given weight material, comprising: a. an aerodynamic housing;
b. a jet tube means passing through said housing, said tube means having an inlet at a forward end of said housing and an exhaust at a rearward end thereof;
c. a powder storage means in said housing;
d. a deagglomeration means also in said housing; e. means connecting said powder storage means with said deagglomeration means for feeding radiation scattering powder from said powder storage means to said deagglomeration means;
f. the output of said deagglomeration means dispensing directly into said jet tube means for exhausting deagglomerated powder particles into the atmosphere to form a contrail; and h. means for controlling the flow of said powder from said storage means to said deagglomeration means.
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said jet tube means is a ram air jet tube.
3. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein an upstream deflector baffle is provided at the output of said deagglomeration means into said jet tube means to produce a venturi effect for minimizing back pressure on said powder feeding means.
4. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said deagglomerator means comprises: a. means for subjecting powder particles from said powder storage means to a hammering action to aerate and precondition the powder; and b. a jet mill means to further deagglomerate the powder into separate particles.
5. Apparatus as in claim 4 wherein pressurized gas means is provided for operating said deagglomeration means.
6. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles are titanium dioxide pigment having a median particle size of about 0.3 microns.
7. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles have a coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica thereon to minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
8. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein the formulation of said powder consists of 85% by weight of TiO2 pigment of approximately 0.3 micron media particle size, 10% by weight of colloidal silica of 0.007 micron primary particle size, and 5% by weight of silica gel having an average particle size of 4.5 microns.
9. The method of producing a light radiation scattering contrail, comprising:
a. surface treating light scattering powder particles to minimize interparticle cohesive forces;
b. deagglomerating said powder particles in two stages prior to dispensing into a jet tube by subjecting said powder particles to a hammering action in the first stage to aerate and precondition the powder, and by passing said powder through a jet mill in the second stage to further deagglomerate the powder;
c. dispensing the deagglomerated powder from the jet mill directly into a jet tube for exhausting said powder into the atmosphere, thus forming a contrail.
10. A method as in claim 9 wherein said light scattering powder particles is titanium dioxide pigment.
11. A method as in claim 9 wherein said powder particles are treated with a coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica to minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
12. A method as in claim 11 wherein said treated powder particles are further protected with a silica gel powder.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The powder contail generator in pod 10, shown in FIG. 1, is provided with a powder feed hopper 12 positioned in the center section of the pod and which feeds a powder 13 to a deagglomerator 14 by means of screw conveyors 16 across the bottom of the hopper. The deagglomerator 14 produces two stages of action. In the first stage of deagglomeration, a shaft 18 having projecting radial rods 19 in compartment 20 is rotated by an air motor 21, or other suitable drive means. The shaft 18 is rotated at about 10,000 rpm, for example. As powder 13 descends through the first stage compartment 20 of the deagglomeration chamber, the hammering action of rotating rods 19 serves to aerate and precondition the powder before the second stage of deagglomeration takes place in the jet mill section 22. In the jet mill 22, a plurality of radial jets 24 (e.g., six 0.050 inch diamter radial jets) direct nitrogen gas (at e.g., 120 psig) inward to provide energy for further deagglomeration of the powder. The N2, or other suitable gas, is provided from storage tanks 25 and 26, for example, in the pod.
The jet mill 22 operates in a similar manner to commercial fluid energy mills except that there is no provision for recirculation of oversize particles. Tests with the deagglomerator show that at a feed rate of approximately 11/2 lb/min, treated titanium dioxide powder pigment is effectively dispersed as single particles with very few agglomerates evident.
The nitrogen gas stored in cylinder tanks 25 and 26 is charged to 1800 psig, for example. Two stages of pressure reduction, for example, by pressure reduction valves 28 and 29, bring the final delivery pressure at the radial jets 24 and to the air motor 21 to approximately 120 psig. A solenoid valve 30 on the 120 psig line is connected in parallel with the electric motor 32 which operates the powder feeder screws 16 for simultaneous starting and running of the powder feed, the air motor and the jet mill deagglomerator.
Air enters ram air tube 34 at its entrance 35 and the exhaust from the jet mill deagglomerator passes directly into the ram air tube. At the deagglomerator exhaust 36 into ram air tube 34, an upstream deflector baffle 38 produces a venturi effect which minimizes back pressure on the powder feed system. The powder is then jetted from the exhaust end 40 of the ram air tube to produce a contrail. A pressure equalization tube, not shown, can be used to connect the top of the closed hopper 12 to the deagglomeration chamber 14. A butterfly valve could be provided at the powder hopper outlet 39 to completely isolate and seal off the powder supply when not in use. Powder 13 could then be stored in hopper 12 for several weeks, without danger of picking up excessive moisture, and still be adequately dispensed.
Preparation of the light scatter powder 13 is of a critical importance to production of a powder "contrail" having maximum visibility for a given weight of material. It is essential that the pigment powder particles be dispensed as separate single particles rather than as agglomerates of two or more particles. The powder treatment produces the most easily dispersed powder through the use of surface treatments which minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
Titanium dioxide pigment was selected as the primary light scattering material because of its highly efficient light scattering ability and commercially available pigment grades. Titanium dioxide pigment (e.g., DuPont R--931) with a median particle size of about 0.3µ has a high bulk density and is not readily aerosolizable as a submicron cloud without the consumption of a large amount of deagglomeration energy. In order to reduce the energy requirement for deagglomeration, the TiO2 powder is specially treated with a hydrophobic colloidal silica which coats and separates the individual TiO2 pigment particles. The extremely fine particulate nature (0.007µ primary particle size) of Cobot S--101 Silanox grade, for example, of colloidal silica minimizes the amount needed to coat and separate the TiO2 particles, and the hydrophobic surface minimizes the affinity of the powder for absorbtion of moisture from the atmosphere. Adsorbed moisture in powders causes liquid bridges at interparticle contacts and it then becomes necessary to overcome the adsorbed-liquid surface tension forces as well as the weaker Van der Waals' forces before the particles can be separated.
The Silanox treated titanium dioxide pigment is further protected from the deleterious effects of adsorbed moisture by incorporation of silica gel. The silica gel preferentially adsorbs water vapor that the powder may be exposed to after drying and before use. The silica gel used is a powder product, such as Syloid 65 from the W. R Grace and Co., Davison Chemical Division, and has an average particle size about 4.5µ and a large capacity for moisture at low humidities.
A typical powder composition used is shown in Table 1. This formulation was blended intimately with a Patterson-Kelley Co. twin shell dry LB-model LB--2161 with intensifier. Batches of 1500 g were blended for 15 min. each and packaged in 5-lb cans. The bulk density of the blended powder is 0.22 g/cc. Since deagglomeration is facilitated by having the powder bone dry, the powder should be predried before sealing the cans. In view of long periods (e.g., about 4 months) between powder preparation and use it is found preferable to spread the powder in a thin layer in an open container and place in a 400°F over two days before planned usage. The powder is removed and placed in the hopper about 2 hours before use.
Table 1 ______________________________________ CONTRAIL POWDER FORMULATION Ingredient % by Weight ______________________________________ TiO2 (e.g., DuPont R-931) 85 median particle size 0.3µ Colloidal Silica (e.g., Cabot S-101 Silanox) 10 primary particle size 0.007µ Silica gel (e.g., Syloid 65) 5 average particle size 4.5µ ______________________________________ Other type powder compositions can also be used with the apparatus described herein. For example, various powder particles which reflect electromagnetic radiation can be dispensed as a chaff or the like from the contrail generator.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
The present invention relates to method and apparatus for contrail generation and the like.
An earlier known method in use for contrail generation involves oil smoke trails produced by injecting liquid oil directly into the hot jet exhaust of an aircraft target vehicle. The oil vaporizes and recondenses being the aircraft producing a brilliant white trail. Oil smoke trail production requires a minimum of equipment; and, the material is low in cost and readily available. However, oil smoke requires a heat source to vaporize the liquid oil and not all aircraft target vehicles, notably towed targets, have such a heat source. Also, at altitudes above about 25,000 feet oil smoke visibility degrades rapidly.
The present invention is for a powder generator requiring no heat source to emit a "contrail" with sufficient visibility to aid in visual acquisition of an aircraft target vehicle and the like. The term "contrail" was adopted for convenience in identifying the visible powder trail of this invention. Aircraft target vehicles are used to simulate aerial threats for missile tests and often fly at altitudes between 5,000 and 20,000 feet at speeds of 300 and 400 knots or more. The present invention is also suitable for use in other aircraft vehicles to generate contrails or reflective screens for any desired purpose.
The powder contail generator is normally carried on an aircraft in a pod containing a ram air tube and powder feed hopper. Powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive forces are fed from the hopper to a deagglomerator and then to the ram air tube for dispensing as separate single particles to produce a contrail having maximum visibility for a given weight material.
Other object, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.
Subsonic jet emissions report
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
PA420-R-99-013 - Final Report
"Evaluation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Subsonic Commercial Jet Aircraft"
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 1999.
Excerpts from this report are reprinted below.
Public Health and Aircraft Emissions:
Ultimately, EPA's principal concern in evaluating and controlling (jet fuel) emissions is the preservation of human health and, secondarily, the protection of public welfare (including protection against damage to crops, vegetation, animals, and buildings)...In particular, they have significant concerns regarding the effect of NOx on local and regional environments. Tropospheric NOx has multiple environmental quality impacts.contributing to ground-level O3 and PM, but also air toxic concentrations, excess nitrogen loads to sensitive water bodies, and acidification of sensitive ecosystems (EPA 1997a)." (PM = Particulate Matter).
Table 1.1 Representative health effects of air pollutants
Jet Emission Pollutants:
- Ozone: Lung function impairment, effects on exercise performance, increased airway responsiveness, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection, increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits, pulmonary inflammation and lung structure damage. (Examples of these effects are chronic inflammation and structural damage to lung tissue as well as accelerated decline in baseline lung function).
- Carbon Monoxide: Cardiovascular effects, especially in those persons with heart conditions. Effects on animals are similar to humans.
- Nitrogen Oxides: Lung irritation and lower resistance to respiratory infections. Premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, changes in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms, changes to lung tissues and structure, and altered respiratory defense mechanisms. (Asthmatics are especially sensitive).
- Volatile Organic Compounds: Eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and memory impairment.
Table 1.2 Representative Environmental Effects
- Ozone: Crop damage, damage to trees and decreased resistance to disease for both crops and other plants. (Ground-level ozone interferes with the ability of plants to produce and store food so that growth, reproduction and overall plant health are compromised. By weakening trees and other plants, ozone can make plants more susceptible to disease, insect attacks, and harsh weather. Ground level ozone can also kill or damage leaves so that they fall off the plants too soon or become spotted and brown ...).
- Nitrogen Oxides : Acid rain, visibility degradation, particle formation, contribution towards ozone formation. NO2 is an important precursor to both ozone and acidic precipitation, which harms both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. NOx also plays a role in the formation of acid rain. Acid rain causes surface water acidification and damages trees. NOx contributes to the formation of particles in the atmosphere with the resulting health and visibility effects.
- Particulate Matter: Visibility degradation and safety effects for aircraft from reduced visibility. (PM is the generic term for a broad class of chemically and physically diverse substances that exist as discrete particles over a wide range of sizes. PM may either be emitted directly or formed in the atmosphere by the transformations of gaseous emissions of compounds including NOx, VOCs and sulfur oxides SOx. In addition to the evidence found for health effects associated with aggravation of asthma and increased respiratory illness, and that they may be chronic health effects associated with long-term exposure to high concentrations of coarse particles (FR, July 18, 1997).
"...the nature of the effects that have been reported to be associated with ambient PM, including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease.change in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms, changes to lung tissues and structure, and altered respiratory defense mechanisms; and sensitive sub-populations that appear to be at greater risk to such effects, specifically individuals with respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and the elderly, children, asthmatic children and adults".
- Volatile Organic Compounds: Contribution towards ozone formation, odors, and some direct effect on buildings and plants. (They can arise from evaporation or incomplete fuel combustion. As a class, VOCs react with NOx in the atmosphere to form ozone, but individual VOCs may have additional health effects. Some VOCs have little or no known direct health effect, while other VOCs, such as benzene, are carcinogens. Eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and memory impairment are among the immediate symptoms that some people have experienced soon after exposure to some organics. At high levels, VOCs can have a damaging effect on plants. VOCs that contain chlorine can also contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion).
- The EPA website gives detailed asthma information .
- According to the EPA "Nearly 1 in 13 school-age children has asthma, and that rate is rising more rapidly in preschool-aged children than in any other group. Asthma is the leading cause of school absenteeism due to a chronic illness. It affects 4.8 million children . Ozone pollution may trigger asthma attacks". What other types of air pollution trigger asthma attacks?
- What effect is the air pollution from the experimental jet spraying program and jet exhaust emissions having on the children living here?
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCC Special Report
Aviation and the Global Atmosphere
Summary for Policymakers - 1999
2. How Do Aircraft Affect Climate and Ozone? Aircraft emit gases and particles directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where they have an impact on atmospheric composition. These gases and particles.trigger formation of condensation trails (contrails).
4.6 Cirrus Clouds . Extensive cirrus clouds have been observed to develop after the formation of persistent contrails. Increases in cirrus cloud cover (beyond those identified as line-shaped contrails) are found to be positively correlated with aircraft emissions.
The full report is available online at: http://www.epa.gov/oms/regs/nonroad/aviation/r99013.pdf
Questions to consider:
- If JP-4 or JP-8 Jet Fuel consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, including poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene and benzene (a known carcinogen), how will the increase in jet fuel emissions impact public health?
- When will our elected officials direct our local air pollution districts to start testing our air for barium (salts), aluminum (oxides), perchlorate, cadmium, manganese, magnesium, lead, iron, tungsten, and carcinogenic poly aromatic hydrocarbons like naphthalene and benzene?
- Are fine particles of aluminum oxide and other highly refractive metals being released by jets over our state along with aluminum coated fiberglass (chaff)?
- If fine particles of aluminum oxide and other highly refractive metals were released by jets would this release form brilliant white plumes in the sky? If not, what causes these bright reflective white jet plumes and white reflective haze?
- Can inhaling JP-8 increase lung permeability, damage DNA of lung and liver cells, and thus cause cancer?
- How toxic is JP-8 to the immune system? Could repeated exposure increase the risk of autoimmune diseases and cancer, especially in the presence of other risk factors such as pesticides and herbicides?
- Is carbon black a very effective nuclei around which water vapor can condense, form artifically-induced cloud cover? (NASA) Is carbon black or carbon dust being released over the skies over Mendocino, Lake and Sonoma Counties? If not, what are the black contrails made from?
- Are aluminum oxide particles, of 10 to 100 microns, being mixed with jet fuel for widespread dispersal by both military and commercial jetliners, cruising at stratospheric altitudes? Do fine particulates of 10 microns pose an extreme health hazard? (Chaff-aluminum coated fiberglass).
- Some types of lingering contrails when struck by sunlight at certain angles, display color bars. What is the chemical structure causing this repeated prismatic color bar?
- What is causing increases in upper respiratory problems, chronic sore throats, raspy voices, headaches, flu-like symptoms that last for a week or months, vertigo, dizziness, lethargy, short term memory loss, eye and skin irritations, nose bleeds, asthma, and allergies? (These are just a few of the symptoms becoming more prevalent here).
California State Air Resources Control Board Fact Sheet on "Children's Environmental Health Protection", November 2000
Children and Air Pollution
Children to not react the same to air pollutants as adults. 1. Children breathe faster, 2. have greater exposure to some air pollutants than do adults, and 3. they can be more susceptible to damage to their developing organs and immune systems..
"Toxic Air Pollutants - A list of special toxic air pollutants that may cause increased illness to infants and children.." Compiled on July 1, 2001, and available by contacting their public information office or website: www.arb.ca.gov .
"Each year air pollution claims upwards of 50,000 lives in the United States alone, but this and other information often fails to make its way out of the pages of scientific journals" to the public. A review of recent studies concludes that Air Pollution Causes Asthma. "A long-held consensus view of the health effects of air pollution-namely, that outdoor pollutants exacerbate, but do not necessarily cause the most common chronic disease of childhoods, asthma-must be re-examined in light of several recent studies. At sites in Taiwan, Israel and California researchers have demonstrated an association between outdoor air pollution and the development of asthma in children and adults alike. These findings may help explain not only how and why asthma develops, but shed light on the cause of epidemic-like increases in its prevalence".
"Despite such striking relationships between exposure to air pollution and asthma aggravation, air pollution has not been regarded as a cause of the disease. Increasingly, however, recent studies have been suggesting that air pollution may, indeed, be a cause of asthma (as in the USC study of children) that ozone is the most likely cause of air pollution-related asthma".
"The federal Clean Air Act and the California Clean Air Act both require that an air pollution standard be set at a level that protects the health of sensitive populations (children, for example) against the adverse effects of air pollution. The ASHMOG study results suggest that the current and proposed standards should be re-examined for their adequacy in light of its findings".
"Although these two studies demonstrate an association between ozone exposure and development of asthma, other studies seem to implicate other pollutants ... Particulate Matter-Asthma Association. Researchers found associations between asthma in children and exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide".
" Worth Noting: Benzene as a Cause of Lymph System Cancer. Evidence continues to accumulate that air pollution poses special, and sometimes quite grave, risks for children. A recent study in Denmark, for example, suggests that those risks may include a cancer of the lymphatic system, or lymphoma, known as Hodgkin's disease... Benzene is both a constituent of gasoline and a combustion by product". (My note: It may also be found in jet fuel and jet fuel emissions. Studies should be undertaken to determine the impact of commercial and non-commercial jet fuel emissions on both adults and children).
"Central nervous system symptoms such as: fatigue, restlessness, depression, memory loss, balance, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, lethargy, headache, dizziness, and change in senses. Respiratory symptoms: wheezing, shortness of breath, persistent cough, and bronchitis. Anemia and easy bruising.." were related to rising concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
"There is little doubt that extremely fine particles (what most would call soot) causes illness and death. The number of studies demonstrating this association has increased sharply in the past several years.." Cars, trucks, buses, jet airplanes, and factories, forest burning, agricultural burning, fireplaces, backyard waste burning, are all sources of this type of pollution. Forest fires alone have been demonstrated to increase "emergency room visits for asthma, sinusitis, upper respiratory infections and laryngitis".
California State Air Resources Board. Fact Sheet November 2001
California State Air Resources Board:
"What exactly is particulate matter? Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture that consists of dry solid fragments, solid cores, with liquid coatings and small droplets of liquid. These tiny particles vary greatly in shape, size and chemical composition, and can be made up of many different materials such as metals, soot, soil and dust.." These particulates may also include Chaff (Aluminum Coated Fiberglass).
"What kinds of harmful effects can PM cause? Since the small particles that make up PM10 can easily penetrate deep into the lungs. Numerous studies have found significant associations between particulate matter (PM) and the number of human deaths reported daily. Harmful health effects have resulted from both short-and long-term exposures to particulate matter. During these periods of high PM levels, scientists also observed the worsening of both asthma symptoms and acute and chronic bronchitis".
"Scientists have found a relationship between high PM levels and reductions in various aspects of the healthy functioning of people's lungs. The elderly and people with heart and/or lung diseases may be sensitive to the effects of PM....In California, any concentration of PM10 above the current standards may result in harmful health effects. PM 10 levels in most areas of California exceed current state PM10 standards from a few, to many times each year".
Fine particles billow by the millions of tons each year into the air from gasoline, diesel and jet engines, industrial smokestacks, etc. Visibility measurements from polluting industrial sources to airports reflect concentrations of these fine soot particles and other particulate matter. In more rural areas air pollution seems to be increasing. This is exacerbated by increasing non-commercial jet fuel emissions, military use of chaff (aluminum coated fiberglass particulates), and the additional substances found in lingering jet contrails – especially black contrails that may contain (among other substances) carbon black.
We are requesting that studies be conducted to determine if both non-commercial and commercial jets are increasing air pollution and particulates over Mendocino, Lake & Sonoma Counties. In addition, we are requesting studies to determine if air pollution (including acid rain), and lack of sunlight from non-commercial and commercial lingering jet contrails is impacting both public health and the health of our trees.
Interest in the type of non-commercial jet emissions is of great importance in determining their impact on our environment. There are suspicions that smoke, chaff, carbon black, barium, aluminum, manganese, and other substances are being released into our atmosphere from these jets. It is difficult to believe that the number, type, shape, color and resulting types of chemically induced clouds are all "normal" contrails just made up of ice crystals. If they were "normal" then they would have been visible historically in our respective counties and not just a more recent phenomenon.
It should also be noted that our skies are clear deep blue in the absence of the unmarked non-commercial jets that leave lingering contrails. Since the commercial airlines fly every day - this raises serious questions about the impact of these unmarked jets.
Increasing automobile traffic and the increasing amount of land, that is being turned into acres of grapes, also adds to this problem, due to the particulate matter resulting from burning rather than using wood chippers to reduce cuttings to mulch that can be recycled.