Nitrogen Trifluoride and Chemtrails
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3. This nitrogen-fluorine compound is a colorless, toxic, odourless, nonflammable gas. It finds increasing use as an etchant inmicroelectronics.
Nitrogen trifluoride is used in the plasma etching of silicon wafers. Today nitrogen trifluoride is predominantly employed in the cleaning of the PECVD chambers in the high volume production of liquid crystal displays and silicon-based thin film solar cells. In these applications NF3 is initially broken down in situ, by a plasma. The resulting fluorine atoms are the active cleaning agents that attack the polysilicon, silicon nitride and silicon oxide. Nitrogen trifluoride can be used as well with tungsten silicide, and tungsten produced by CVD. NF3 has been considered as an environmentally preferable substitute for sulfur hexafluorideor perfluorocarbons such as hexafluoroethane. The process utilization of the chemicals applied in plasma processes is typically below 20 %. Therefore some of the PFCs and also of the NF3 always escape into the atmosphere. Modern gas abatement systems can decrease such emissions.
Recently elemental fluorine has been introduced as an environmentally friendly replacement for nitrogen trifluoride in state-of-the-art high volume manufacturing of flat panel displays and solar cell manufacturing.
Nitrogen trifluoride is also used in hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers, which are types of chemical lasers. It is preferred to fluorine gas due to its convenient handling properties, reflecting its considerable stability.
It is compatible with steel and Monel, as well as several plastics.
Synthesis and reactivity
NF3 is a rare example of a binary fluoride that cannot be prepared directly from the elements (i.e., N2 does not react with F2). Almost all other elements in the periodic table react directly, often violently, with fluorine.
After first attempting the synthesis in 1903, Otto Ruff prepared nitrogen trifluoride 25 years later by the electrolysis of a molten mixture of ammonium fluoride and hydrogen fluoride. It proved to be far less reactive than nitrogen trichloride. Today, it is prepared both by direct reaction of ammonia and fluorine and by a variation of Ruff's method.
It is supplied in pressurized cylinders. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_trifluoride
Potent Greenhouse Gas More Common in Atmosphere Than Estimated
A NASA news release from October 2008
New research indicates a powerful greenhouse gas is at least four times more prevalent in the atmosphere than previously estimated. The research, based on data from a NASA-funded measurement network, examined nitrogen trifluoride, which is thousands of times more effective at warming the atmosphere than an equal mass of carbon dioxide.
Using new analytical techniques, Ray Weiss of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif., led a team of researchers in making the first atmospheric measurements of nitrogen trifluoride. The amount of the gas in the atmosphere, which could not be detected using previous techniques, had been estimated at less than 1,200 metric tons in 2006. The new research shows the actual amount was 4,200 metric tons. In 2008, about 5,400 metric tons of the gas are in the atmosphere, a quantity that is increasing at a rate of about 11 percent per year.
"Accurately measuring small amounts of nitrogen trifluoride in air has proven to be a very difficult experimental problem, and we are very pleased to have succeeded in this effort," Weiss said. The research will be published Oct. 31 in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Research Letters.
Emissions of nitrogen trifluoride were thought to be so low that the gas was not considered a significant potential contributor to global warming. It was not covered by the Kyoto Protocol, the 1997 agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions signed by 182 countries. The gas is 17,000 times more potent as a global warming agent than a similar mass of carbon dioxide. It survives in the atmosphere about five times longer than carbon dioxide. However, current nitrogen trifluoride emissions contribute only about 0.15 percent of the total global warming effect caused by current human-produced carbon dioxide emissions.
Nitrogen trifluoride is one of several gases used during the manufacture of liquid crystal flat-panel displays, thin-film solar cells and microcircuits. Many industries have used the gas in recent years as an alternative to perfluorocarbons, which also are potent greenhouse gases, because it was believed that no more than two percent of the nitrogen trifluoride used in these processes escaped into the atmosphere.
The Scripps team analyzed air samples gathered during the past 30 years, including samples from the NASA-funded Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network of ground-based stations. The network was created in the 1970s in response to international concerns about chemicals depleting the ozone layer. It is supported by NASA as part of its congressional mandate to monitor ozone-depleting trace gases, many of which also are greenhouse gases. Air samples are collected at several stations around the world. The Scripps team analyzed samples from coastal clean-air stations in California and Tasmania for this research.
The researchers found concentrations of the gas rose from about 0.02 parts per trillion in 1978 to 0.454 parts per trillion in 2008. The samples also showed significantly higher concentrations of nitrogen trifluoride in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere, which the researchers said is consistent with its use predominantly in that hemisphere. The current observed rate of increase of nitrogen trifluoride in the atmosphere corresponds to emissions of about 16 percent of the amount of the gas produced globally.
In response to the growing use of the gas and concerns that its emissions are not well known, scientists recently have recommended adding it to the list of greenhouse gases regulated by Kyoto.
"As is often the case in studying atmospheric emissions, this study shows a significant disagreement between 'bottom-up' emissions estimates and the actual emissions as determined by measuring their accumulation in the atmosphere," Weiss said.
Article by Steve Cole of NASA, and, Robert Monroe and Mario Aguilera of Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Short Term Effects of Chemtrails:
- Brain Fog
- Breathing difficulties (Unexplained)
- Chronic sore or raspy throat
- Eye and skin irritations
- Flatulence (gas)
- Flu-like symptoms
- itching (Unexplained)
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Nose bleeds (Unexplained)
- Panic attacks
- Persistent coughing
- Respiratory problems
- Stomach aches
- Suicidal thoughts
- Tinnitus (distant ringing in ears or high pitched sound after spraying)
- And many other symptoms
Long Term Effects of Chemtrails:
- Acid Reflux
- (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
- Alzheimer's Disease
- Aluminum build up in Pineal Gland
- Autism (evidence links autism to mercury)
- Autoimmune Diseases
- Blood in the Urine
- Borderline personality disorder
- Cancer (linked to many types of cancers)
- Chronic Fatigue
- Easy Bruising
- Eye problems - * Nearsightedness & Farsightedness (by altering interocular fluid eye
- Floaters In the Eyes
- Heart Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
- Heart Disease
- High Cholesterol
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
- Learning Disabilities
- Lung diseases
- Lupus Erythematosus
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Oily Skin (Elevated DHT)
- Parkinson's Disease
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Short-Term Memory Loss
- Sleep Disorders
- Spider Veins
- Tinnitus (ringing in the ears – 700 million cases of Tinnitus reported worldwide)
- White Coating On the Tongue
- And many other symptoms